Validity of this statement hardly demands proofs. But it is necessary to be guided by what principles at a choice of fixture?
The main thing " it is exact to define his functionalities. If you want, that in your house there was a correct, expe nt and beautiful illumination, choose fixture not only under his form, and first of all how it(he) shines.
purpose of fixture and his aesthetic value are defined first of all by a design and form of his plafond, and also a material,
Of which plafond is made. Appearance of a plafond plays for us in most cases a main role at a choice of fixture therefore we do not consider his design features influencing his functional properties.
Plafonds from crystal and a high-quality glass are most valuable in aesthetic plan. They well transfer high temperature and can
To be used with lamps of any capacity, but differ high Allocation of heat and are heavy enough. They well approach for general and decorative illumination. Plafonds from a color glass strengthen color influence of light. For mitigation of false perception color
Scales of an interior of a premise(room) they should be open on one hand for miss(passing) of direct light.
Porcelain and ceramic plafonds are well looked, however artificial light deforms perception of invoice of a material of which they are made. Also it is necessary to mean, that they are rather heavy and practically do not pass(miss) light. Plafonds from artificial materials of rack to
To break, are easy, but are sensitive to temperature influence and may be used only with lamps of small capacity. same can be told and about plafonds of textile materials made with application, leather(skin), a tree, papers. They pass(miss) not enough light and approach basically for local illumination. most practical are metal plafonds: they are not afraid neither temperatures, nor casual handling and well operate light. However on aesthetic perception they concede to plafonds made of other materials.
However, much depends on quality of processing of their surfaces, and modern industry is what to offer. Plafonds concern to best of them
From copper alloys, but they demand a special leaving(care) as in due course darken and lose primary kind.
Modern designers offer infinite quantity(amount) of fixtures of diversified on impudence of aesthetic idea of forms, but on functional purpose. All fixtures can be divided(shared) with greater or smaller degree of reserve into fixtures for general, local or decorative illumination. reserve of similar division is caused by that at times uneasy it happens to define, for what purpose fixture - for general, local or decorative illumination is intended. Many fixtures combine in themselves, at least, two first functions.
As a design differ desktop, floor, On a wall, On a ceiling and pendant fixtures.
On a way of distribution of light of them it is possible to divide into fixtures of direct, refracted and combined light.
In fixtures of direct light light stream goes directly from a light source, amplifying and being formed in a bunch(beam) by reflection from
Internal surface of a plafond. Plafonds for such fixtures are made usually of a lightproof material " metal, plastic, a tree, a leather(skin) and other materials. internal surface of plafonds of fixtures becomes covered è by a layer.
Fixtures of direct light are intended only for local illumination. In fixtures of combined light light stream dissipates, refracting through a transparent plafond of closed form. They are intended basically for general illumination though may be used and for local.
Fixtures of distributed(allocated) light combine in themselves ways of direct and refracted illumination: part light dissipates through
The plafond, part goes a direct stream.
Desktop fixtures (desk lamps) are used basically for local illumination of a working zone at work behind a table. Convenient
For work desk lamp should be, first, small to borrow as small as possible places on a table and above a table (the idealest under these characteristics desk lamps with screw clips are on basis of rack, intended for fastening
Lamps to a table from end faces of a table-top), second, with a reflector reliably hiding a light source, thirdly, it is desirable, that she(it) was aim action, with adjustable height, to a corner of an inclination and position of a reflector in a horizontal plane.
The form and sizes of a reflector of a desk lamp also play not last role for convenient work. most uniform illumination table provide reflectors extended è or hemispherical form. For long and a hard work behind a table most desk lamps with galogen or luminescent light sources.
Getting a desk lamp with a plafond noncontrollable on position, do not overlook to estimate, whether its(her) direct light for illumination of a necessary zone will suffice and whether will be places there where you are going to establish her(it) that you might move her(it), choosing best conditions of illumination enough. Otherwise you itself should arrange under it(her) position if, for example, newspaper will not be covered enough at reading. .
Recently designers offer desk lamps not only for illumination of a workplace, but also for zoned illumination of a premise(room). Such lamps have an attractive kind, massive rack (frequently in form of a vase) and big plafond widely scattering light. They
Are not so functional, and their successful èè in an interior of a room in many respects depends on a place of accommodation.
At a choice of floor fixture (floor lamp) main attention should be given his height and type of a plafond. floor lamp with a plafond reflecting light upwards, will leave in a shadow your loved(liked) for reading, and a floor lamp shining downwards, may blind people sitting about him(it) if it(he) is too high or if lamp ( lamps) is in it superficially. Fashionable now high floor lamps with reflectors - plates are good as zone illumination of a room; è them light èè plays with an interior, but leaves in a deep shadow bottom part of a room, if its(her) ceiling not smooth and not clean - white color. Floor lamps - plates give best effect of illumination in big room with light walls and a white smooth ceiling. Some such floor lamps placed in different corners of a room, are possible to use for general illumination.
For illumination of a zone of rest and realization of leisure (we shall tell, at upholstered furniture in general room) floor lamps with plafonds passing of few(not enough,poorly) light and disseminating it downwards more approach. If in such zone it is supposed daily
Rest of two and more persons, it is desirable, that light cone formed by a floor lamp covered all zone, but thus did not blind an eye.
Floor lamps with with adjustable height and a corner of an inclination a rack have big plus. Such floor lamps, by analogy to a desk lamp, it is possible to name floor lamps, emphasizing identity of functions of both lighting devices. Floor lamps are convenient for illumination of zones of rest and leisure: light stream formed by them can be directed to various places of a zone, creating in them primary illumination on brightness. Imagine, that after supper you have dozed off in an armchair, having dropped on knees newspaper, and your wife wants to tie, conveniently having arranged slightly
On a sofa, and she(it) moves a floor lamp to position convenient for. Whether truth, well? Application of floor lamps of a similar kind in children's rooms is especially successful. child, as is known, does not like to sit in an armchair, and radius of action of floor lamps is rather significant.
For good functionality of a floor lamp one more detail is important: an arrangement of switch. An ideal place for him(it) - on rack of a floor lamp.
In this case it is possible to reach switch a hand, not rising with an armchair or a sofa. Switches with pendant button, but they are convenient also
May spoil a kind of a floor lamp and are not so reliable in work. so-called through passage switches of floor type built in an electrocord on occassion may be convenient, but at a choice of a floor lamp with such switch it is necessary to take into account his place - whether conveniently
Will use foot switch.
On a wall fixtures, or a sconce as them still name, most, perhaps, a kind of lighting devices popular recently for premises. They are very convenient for local illumination whereas do not take a place on horizontal surfaces of an interior, which
Always does not suffice in a standard apartment. They can be placed at any height and in any place while floor lamp, for example, needs rather significant area. Lighting abilities at them are more modest, than at desk lamps and floor lamps, - mainly, because of nearness to a wall and an immovability which is main not a prosperity of these fixtures. They adhere to themselves an illuminated place and consequently, in certain group of furniture and demand exact accommodation on a wall.
Are most practical and functional On a wall fixtures with a lighting jack on an arm, which name - a sconce.
The sconce refer to as also acting On a wall elements of decorative furniture of an apartment, for example, On a wall vase on arms.
Recently become popular On a wall fixtures - lanterns in form of various hemispheres open up. They effectively highlight walls and adjacent space with them and are expe nt as decorative and intimate illumination of a room, and also for
Viewing of telecasts.
On a wall fixtures in greater degree concern to elements of a decor of an interior, than any others, and consequently to their aesthetic kind
Special value as designers, and consumers is attached. They more infos in aesthetic plan as are placed on walls and in certain degree are, as well as they, elements of a protection of space of a premise(room) that is why they are more powerful for an interior, than other kinds of fixtures. At a choice fixtures big degree of functional and aesthetic motivation is required. If in calculation business qualities of a sconce undertake on advantage, it is necessary to pay attention to a design of his armature: length of arm holding a plafond, should be as it is possible for greater, and they adjustable on a corner of an inclination concerning a vertical.
On a ceiling and pendant fixtures have important value not only for correct illumination of premises, but also for his aesthetics
Interior. Usually in calculation last is accepted only, and at a choice of fixtures pay Attention only on their appearance. In result
Fixtures which not only badly shine(cover) a room are got, but also spoil its(her) interior. Buying fixtures of such type, it is necessary
First of all to mean, that they essentially influence perception of height of a ceiling: pendant approach it, On a ceiling delete. Are significant for an interior of a premise(room) and their sizes. Large and massive pendant fixtures may prevent eyes if their sizes are not correlated to sizes of a premise(room), you see first, that draws attention at an input(entrance) in a room, it is pendant fixture. In many cases it(he) is card of a room. Recollect, how frequently we should hear characteristic of someone's habitation approximately in such
Spirit: At them such beautiful luster in a hall! Representation about beauty of pendant fixture usually contacts to one of his main subtypes - a luster. luster (from latin lustro - ) is multilamp or pendant fixture with decorative armature.
The ideology of an electric luster goes back to pendant fixtures of last centuries about electric era when in rich houses for illumination of big halls pendant lighting devices consisting of set incorporated in uniform composition by a candlestick were used.
Style architectural directions of those times have brought in essential contribution to traditional forms, which echoes we find till now in bronze è, bent structures and crystal suspension brackets of some modern lusters.
Some years back in big honour were magnificent crystal lusters with suspension brackets. At many they and today decorate an apartment.
The most valuable in lusters è sight of quality of illumination is presence of several plafonds giving an opportunity in regular more intervals to shine(cover) a premise(room) and also to adjust brightness and an orientation of light. It is necessary to mean, that for uniform illumination it is better, if in illumination there will be some lamps of smaller capacity, than one big. From these reasons it is better to have a luster with five small plafonds, than with three big. Pay attention and to sizes of cartridges for bulbs: what for to you five fixture with big plafonds which are required for bulbs with a standard socle? In modern light engineering tendency to compactness is precisely looked through
Lighting devices of mass consumption. Stop choice on cartridges of small diameter designed for bulbs with a small socle. Do not take in attention that fact, that future behind them is sometimes uneasy to find such bulbs in shops. It is desirable also that circuit of connection of a luster to electric system of a premise(room) provided an opportunity of separate inclusion of plafonds, for example - only two, or three of five, or one of three. But for this purpose in your room to a point of connection of fixture, taking place on a ceiling, should be brought è a biphase electricity cable, and on a wall there should be a two-push-button switch.
Lusters with to top a light stream, with smooth translucent plafonds and rather short. They in regular intervals disseminate light, and effect of dispersion amplifies reflecting ability of a ceiling, and it(he) highlighted, seems above.
The luster with plafonds inverted to a floor shines(covers) middle of a floor more brightly, rather than other surfaces of a room, " think, whether there will be it an advantageous element for an evening interior. If on a floor beautiful carpet - perhaps, yes and if floor is covered with a light parquet or whether lays hardly. Direct light of lamps of a luster shining downwards may blind eyes to small children or you when you sit in an armchair, behind a lunch table or lay on a sofa. Besides if in a room there is a polished furniture, direct light getting on it(her) from such fixtures, is reflected from it(her) by patches of light, and she(it) seems è. ceiling in a room at light directed downwards will seem below -for shadows which fixture will reject by all means on him(it) (especially when ceiling is covered, for example, with finishing plates with relief figure).